A single transistor neuron (1T-neuron) is demonstrated by using a vertically protruded nanowire from an 8 in. silicon (Si) wafer. The 1T-neuron adopts a gate-all-around structure to completely surround the Si nanowire (Si-NW) to make a floating body and allow aggressive downscaling. The Si-NW is composed of an n+ drain at the top, n+ source at the bottom, and p-type floating body at the middle, which are self-aligned vertically. Thus, it occupies a small footprint area. The gate controls an excitatory/inhibitory function. In addition, myelination of a biological neuron that changes membrane capacitance is mimicked by an inherently asymmetric source/drain structure. Two spiking frequencies at the same input current are controlled by whether the neuron is myelinated or unmyelinated. Using the vertical 1T-neuron, pattern recognition is demonstrated with both measurements and semiempirical circuit simulations. Furthermore, handwritten numbers in the MNIST database are recognized with accuracy of 93% by software-based simulations. Applicability of the vertical 1T-neuron to various neural networks is verified, including a single-layer perceptron, multilayer perceptron, and spiking neural network.