A self-powered artificial mechanoreceptor module is demonstrated with a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) as a pressure sensor with sustainable energy harvesting and a biristor as a neuron. By mimicking a biological mechanoreceptor, it simultaneously detects the pressure and encodes spike signals to act as an input neuron of a spiking neural network (SNN). A self-powered neuromorphic tactile system composed of artificial mechanoreceptor modules with an energy harvester can greatly reduce the power consumption compared to the conventional tactile system based on von Neumann computing, as the artificial mechanoreceptor module itself does not demand an external energy source and information is transmitted with spikes in a SNN. In addition, the system can detect low pressures near 3 kPa due to the high output range of the TENG. It therefore can be advantageously applied to robotics, prosthetics, and medical and healthcare devices, which demand low energy consumption and low-pressure detection levels. For practical applications of the neuromorphic tactile system, classification of handwritten digits is demonstrated with a software-based simulation. Furthermore, a fully hardware-based breath-monitoring system is implemented using artificial mechanoreceptor modules capable of detecting wind pressure of exhalation in the case of pulmonary respiration and bending pressure in the case of abdominal breathing.