Title: PAM-4 based PCIe 6.0 Channel Design Optimization Method using Bayesian Optimization
Authors: JihunKim, Hyunwook Park, Minsu Kim, Seonguk Choi, Keeyoung Son, Joonsang Park, Haeyeon Kim, Jinwook Song, Youngmin Ku, Jonggyu Park and Joungho Kim.
Abstract: This paper, for the first time, proposes a pulse amplitude modulation-4 (PAM-4) based peripheral component interconnect express (PCIe) 6.0 channel design optimization method using Bayesian Optimization (BO). The proposed method provides a sub-optimal channel design with PAM-4 signaling that maximizes target function considering signal integrity (SI). We formulate the target function of BO as a linear combination of the channel insertion loss (IL) and crosstalk (FEXT, NEXT) considering characteristics of PAM-4 signaling. To consider the trade-off between insertion loss and crosstalk in PAM-4 signaling, we obtain reasonable coefficients for formulating target function via ablation study. For verification, an eye diagram simulation with PAM-4 signaling is conducted. We compare the channel performance of the proposed method and random search method (RS). Also, the proposed method is compared with the only IL- considered BO method to verify the impact of crosstalk in PAM-4 signaling. As a result, the channel optimized by the proposed method only obtains eye height and eye width of PAM-4 eye diagram, and the PAM-4 eyes of other comparison methods are closed.