Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), which are vertically stacked by van der Waals forces, have great potential for exploring the exotic quantum behaviors and realization of advanced optoelectronics devices. However, nature of 2D materials, extremely sensitive to extrinsic effects, hampered efforts to observe its intrinsic transport. Recently developed ‘van der Waals heterostructure device platform’ allows the atomically perfect interface, dramatic suppression of extrinsic scattering effects, resulting in the achievements of dramatic improvements in performance with long-term stability. Especially, hBN-encapsulation structure of TMDCs with multi-terminal graphene electrodes enables the observation of intrinsic transports such as quantum oscillations and coupled spin-valley physics. Furthermore, van der Waals heterostructure offer an entirely new opportunity for exploring the emerging 2D materials such as NbSe2 and 1T-TaS2. Finally, we discover the bright and stable visible light emission from electrically biased graphene heterostructures. Therefore, van der Waals heterostructures pave a new way toward to study of exotic intrinsic transport of 2D materials, and realization of 2D material based ultrafast optical communication.